۰۹۱۲۴۸۸۴۸۷۷
آخرین بروز رسانی : ۱۳ اسفند ۱۳۹۸

International information and training on HIV and AIDS

۱۶ بهمن ۱۳۹۸

International information and training on HIV and AIDS

Globally, homosexual males as well as other males that have intercourse with males (described throughout these pages as ‘men that have intercourse with guys’ or ‘MSM’) are 27 times prone to obtain HIV as compared to population that is general brand New diagnoses among this team are increasing in a few areas – having a 17per cent increase in Western and Central Europe and a growth of 8% in the united states between 2010 and 2014.2

In 2017, men who possess intercourse with guys taken into account 57percent of brand new HIV infections in Western Europe and the united states, 41% in Latin America together with Caribbean, 25% in Asia in addition to Pacific additionally the Caribbean, 20% in Eastern Europe and Central Asia while the center East and North Africa, as well as a predicted 12% in Western and Central Africa.3

In around 25 nations, 15% of males that have intercourse with guys, or higher, are coping with HIV.4 In Mauritania, its estimated that up to 45% of males that have intercourse with guys are HIV-positive, the united states with all the HIV prevalence that is highest among males that have sex with guys in the field.5

Some nations have actually modern attitudes and policies regarding homosexuality and the lesbian, homosexual, bisexual and transgender and queer (LGBTQ) community. In Latin America, Western Europe, Central Europe and united states, numerous nations are making significant progress in recognising the liberties of LGBTQ people and enable wedding or civil unions between individuals of exactly the same intercourse.6 7

But, nearly all Africa, combined with center East and Russia, will continue to ignore and abuse the peoples liberties of males that have intercourse with men.8 Punitive rules that criminalise activity that is same-sex 67 nations drive this populace underground, elevating their chance of HIV and preventing them from accessing health care, including HIV services.9

Even yet in nations where same-sex task is appropriate, other regulations discriminate against LGBTQ people, and stigma and discrimination stop individuals from accessing HIV solutions and that can result in risk-behaviours that drive transmission.

Exactly just What facets placed men who possess sex with guys prone to HIV?

The truth that HIV prevalence among males that have intercourse with guys is really saturated in numerous nations ensures that users of this combined group have a heightened possibility of being confronted with the herpes virus. It is due mainly to having sex that is unprotected nevertheless, there are more factors that put males who possess intercourse with men at heightened risk of HIV.

Biological factors

Among the key reasons behind high vulnerability to HIV among this group is the fact that unprotected anal intercourse holds an increased threat of transmission than vaginal intercourse. The reason being the walls for the rectum are slim and much more easily torn, creating an entry point for HIV into the bloodstream.11 12

Having an infection that is sexually transmitted) also makes an individual more prone to HIV disease. STI rates among males who possess intercourse with males are high and have now been increasing going back two decades.13

Despite these heightened biological risks, HIV screening and health that is sexual regularity continues to be fairly low among this group (less than 55per cent across all areas in 2013). 14

Different studies in numerous nations have discovered that males who’ve intercourse with guys are afraid of experiencing discrimination, ethical judgment, mistreatment and privacy breaches in health care settings.15 Because of this, lots of men who possess intercourse with guys are managing a undiscovered sti which could place them at greater risk of HIV.16

There was a really high threat of HIV being sent if some one has sex that is unprotected an individual who has got recently become contaminated. For example, research in London, great britain (UK) reported that 27% of infections among males that have intercourse with males had been from a partner recently infected with HIV. Nonetheless, a lot of men who possess intercourse with males whom take part in casual intercourse don’t realize this.17

Behavioural factors

Having numerous intimate partners is common amongst males that have intercourse with guys, yet a lot of men doing casual intercourse don’t use condoms consistently. In 33 nations not as much as 60% of males who possess intercourse with males had reported utilizing a condom at final anal intercourse, and just 15 countries had rates more than 80per cent.18

Information on other STIs among men that have sex with males are further proof inconsistent condom use.19 20

Use of HIV evaluation solutions among males that have intercourse with guys can also be diverse. In a number of European and united states urban centers, males that have sex with guys are approaching or have actually exceeded the 90-90-90 targets, with more than 90percent of males who possess intercourse with males alert to their HIV status. Yet studies carried out in Kenya, Malawi and Southern Africa are finding that only 1 in three men that are HIV-positive have sexual intercourse with males had been alert to their status, plus in Mozambique it had been less than 10%.21 A research in Asia discovered that just 30% of the cohort in excess of 1,000 males that have mexican brides scam intercourse with guys managing HIV had been conscious of their status.22

Perhaps perhaps Not testing for HIV means a lot of men that have intercourse with males are unaware of their HIV status and could be unacquainted with the necessity to simply simply just take preventative measures to stop transmission that is onward other people. Drugs and alcohol certainly are a typical section of socialising in a few communities of males who possess intercourse with males. Being intoxicated by medications or liquor causes it to be much more likely that folks may have sex that is unprotected a greater range intimate lovers, increasing the danger of HIV transmission. For example, research carried out in Asia among men that have intercourse with men discovered a link between liquor, increased risk that is sexual and HIV acquisition.23 24

In Asia in addition to Pacific, and united states and Western Europe, proof keeps growing that some males who possess intercourse with males are playing team intercourse most frequently known as ‘chemsex’ (also called ‘party and play’ or ‘PNP’) intoxicated by psychoactive and performance-enhancing medications. The medications getting used, specifically GHB (gamma-hydoxybutyrate), methamphetamine and methedrone, facilitate prolonged sexual sessions and frequently include multiple lovers.25 information from 2014 suggests around 3 in 10 homosexual males when you look at the UK involved in chemsex within the year.26 being past

Healthcare specialists are especially focused on the high-risk behaviours why these medications cause; a shortage of real inhibition and understanding can indicate a participant is confronted with numerous lovers without security or even provided medication equipment that is taking advances the chance of HIV transmission. In instances where sex is extended there’s also a concern that individuals coping with HIV may forget to simply simply simply take ART medicine, or that people that are HIV-negative will miss the 72-hour screen to qualify for getting post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after suspected experience of HIV.27

Men in this combined teams frequently become HIV-positive while nevertheless young. Quotes claim that 4.2% of teenagers (under-25) who possess intercourse with males are coping with HIV. This might be more prevalent in nations where HIV prevalence on the list of entire males whom have sexual intercourse with males populace is reasonably high.28 One research carried call at Bangkok discovered HIV incidence ended up being significantly more than two times as high among males aged 18 to 21 years when compared with males over three decades of age.29

Where competition intersects as we grow older and sex, HIV danger can additionally be impacted. As an example, in the united states, young black colored males (aged between 13 and 24) who’ve intercourse with males remain 3 x almost certainly going to have HIV than white males that have intercourse with males of this exact same age.30

Legal factors

At the time of 2019, 67 nations criminalised conduct that is same-sex impacting the legal rights of males who possess intercourse with guys along with other people of the LGBTQ community. In eight nations Iran that is including, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and areas of Nigeria and Somalia, homosexuality is punishable by death.33 Because of this, males who possess intercourse with guys are much less likely to access HIV services for concern with their sexual orientation and identification being revealed.

At the time of 2019, 32 nations limited people’s freedom to state their intimate identification. Some have rules that ban content that ‘promote’ homosexuality or ‘non-traditional’ intimate relations. Around 41 nations have actually guidelines that restrict non-government organisations (NGOs) that really work on LGBTQ issues.34 35

As an example, Russia has an anti-propaganda law so it utilizes to stop NGOs delivering HIV solutions to males who’ve intercourse with guys. Its impact in your community is so that similar legislation have also introduced in Lithuania and Belarus and they are also sporadically being proposed, then challenged in Ukraine. Parliaments in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia also have tried to pass anti-propaganda statutory laws and regulations but none have now been successful – yet.36

راهنمایی مشاوره مدیریت ، اخذ گواهینامه ایزو و مشاوره تعالی سازمانی